Preparing software for release requires bringing many separate components together: code that needs to be compiled, third-party libraries that need to be installed, scripts that enable everything to run, and some kind of hardware where the software is deployed. Ensuring that the right versions of all the components are packaged together and successfully installed is the job of a build and release engineer.
Build and release engineers usually have a degree in computer or information science. The engineers should understand how configuration management and version control systems work, and be able to work with the development team to manage branches.
Engineers should become comfortable writing complex scripts for a variety of platforms, as these are needed to automate the many steps of a build and deployment process. Many organizations try to minimize manual effort required to install a product, as that may be error prone. The scripts help ensure that the build process is repeatable and reliable.
Communication skills are important, as the build and release engineers need to work with the development and infrastructure teams to understand the components needed for the builds and the platforms the built packages need to run on. Release engineers need also need written communication skills, in order to document the build and release process.
Attention to detail is critical, since pulling the wrong version of source code into a build or omitting a necessary library means build scripts may fail or the deployed application won't run correctly.
The salary for build and release engineers is comparable to those in related careers like software engineering and systems administration. As you become more experienced in the release engineering process, you can take on additional responsibility for planning the application build and deployment process. For those who are interested in management, senior engineers can help choose tools and set corporate standards around the build and deployment process. Other build engineers opt to move into quality assurance or software development roles.
Moving from a hands-on role to a manager's role means a big change in what you do on a daily basis. It also means a big change in how you relate to co-workers, especially if you now manage former peers. Here are three tips to help you adapt and succeed in this new role.
The most important thing to recognize as a new manager is that you don't actually know how to do everything the job requires. Your technical skills will help with some aspects of the job, like developing project schedules and deciding if an application is ready to release, but the management role requires other skills, like budgeting and conducting performance reviews, that may not have been needed previously. Plan to take the necessary training and find mentors to help you continue to develop.
As an individual contributor, your success was evaluated solely based on your own performance. As a manager, your success depends on the success of your team. It's important to get team members to buy in to project priorities and deadlines, which means setting goals clearly and being open to feedback. Make sure the team knows you're open to their opinions by having an open-door policy. Some team members may hesitate to speak out in a group setting, so seek them out for one-to-one discussions.
When things aren't going well, get the team's perception of the problem and their input on ways to improve it, rather than dictating a solution or imposing a new process on them. Be sure to celebrate the team's success, too; you don't want them conditioned to expect bad news when you walk into the room.
Your success as a manager may inspire others to aspire to management roles. Encourage team members to grow and develop skills, technical and other. Take the annual goal-setting process seriously, and help team members set goals that are achievable, and will benefit them as well as the company. Create an environment that supports learning, by encouraging training. Mentor team members to help them develop. Helping your team develop their skills will make them stronger contributors, increase your team's success, and help you climb the management ladder.
In comic strips and action movies, robot exoskeletons give inventors superpowers. In factories and other work environments, robot exoskeletons support workers, to improve occupational safety.
The need for improved occupational safety is large. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported more than 3 million nonfatal injuries and illnesses in private industry during 2013. The impact on productivity is large, with a median eight days off from work due to injury or illness. The number of fatal work injuries was much smaller, at about 4,500, but the personal impact is, of course, immense.
For assembly line and other industrial workers, repetitive stress is a common medical issue. The Chairless Chair supports workers in a half-sitting position, customized to their specific body shape. Wearers don't have to drag a chair with them as they move about; the Chairless Chair moves with them.
The Ekso Works, like the Chairless Chair, transfers the user's weight to the ground. It goes a step further in having a sprung arm that can handle a heavy tool, making it practically weightless to the person wearing the exoskeleton. Another exoskeleton, the Fortis, lets wearers lift heavy objects effortlessly in a standing or kneeling position. Wearers will be able to work more easily in areas where bench-mounted tools can't be used.
A device that fits around the wearer's calf, the Walking Assist Clutch, literally puts a spring in the wearer's step. The device is triggered at a specific moment during a stride and increases the efficiency of walking by seven percent. This would benefit workers who are on their feet all day long, like nurses or a police officer walking a beat.
Businesses are looking at these devices to provide more ergonomic work environments, and increase employee productivity as well as minimizing health expenses due to employee injuries. For employees, benefits include the reduced risk of injury, and no lost wages from unpaid time off. Outside the workplace, exoskeletons will enable paralyzed individuals and frail elderly to maintain independence. In those cases, the exoskeleton is indeed delivering a superpower.
Information technology teams are often eager to work with the latest technology, but they aren't always that eager to work with new processes, which are seen as management fads with little benefit to the technical workers. If the team doesn't support the new process, it may fail, reinforcing that opinion. Managers should take steps to get the team to buy into the new process, so they are invested in its success. Here are some steps that will help your team buy into a new process and help it succeed:
When you talk about the new process with your team, your belief in it has to be evident. If you aren't able to convincingly explain what the new process will achieve, the team won't be motivated to make it work. If you can show the team how the new process will benefit them – not just you or the business - that's even better. Even the most dedicated employee has a little bit of "what's in it for me?" inside them.
Even if you're the one mandating the new process, if you take input from the team, they'll feel ownership of the process and want it to succeed. When someone offers a good suggestion, integrate it into the process. Also, realize that developing a good process requires iteration. Be willing to modify the process, once you see how it works in reality.
Don't mandate a new process and then wait for a final report. It may take time to fully roll out the process, and you need to be aware of how the team is responding each step of the way. Have regular feedback meetings, and let the team know that getting feedback is a priority. If you're not hearing any complaints, don't assume everything is going fine. Schedule one-on-one discussions with different team members to get their opinions; you may get feedback they weren't comfortable offering in a public forum.
A team is also more likely to believe in the value of a new process if they hear about benefits from a peer, not just management. If the new process is rolled out over time, rather than implemented across the entire company simultaneously, non-management employees who found the change to be positive can become evangelists for the change. Let them spread the good news to your team and share their excitement. They can get your team excited about the change, too, which goes far beyond simply accepting the change, and is much more likely to make the change succeed.
If you like taking the big view, working as a systems engineer may be the right career choice for you. Systems integration engineers focus on the entire system, not just a single piece of it in isolation. They're responsible for making sure the hardware, software, and network function together with appropriate performance and security.
Succeeding as a systems engineer means being well rounded technically, as well as having good interpersonal skills. Here are four skills essential to your success.
1. Understand computer hardware, software, and networking
Systems integration engineers typically have a degree in computer science, computer engineering, or other technical disciplines. Solving system integration problems requires the ability to understand all the different components of a deployed solution. Because integration issues often arise when older technology must be coupled with newer technology, systems integration engineers should enjoy constant learning.
2. Enjoy both analytical and hands-on work to solve problems
Systems integration engineers have to untangle difficult interoperability issues that arise when different application components are developed, at different times, by separate teams. This can require analysis of application and network logs, as well as writing middleware code to make components work together. Systems integration engineers often are involved with testing the system, including unit testing of middleware and complete end-to-end testing of the application.
3. Communicate well with customers and other engineers
Because they solve middleware issues, systems integration engineers should be able to participate in technical discussions with other systems integration engineers and their software engineering and network engineering colleagues, to discuss application and architectural issues. They should be able to develop technical documents to propose alternative solutions, document the implemented design, and define test cases.
4. Bring a focused attitude to work with a strong attention to detail
The solution to systems integration problems often is found by understanding the fine points of the application. Systems integration engineers should have the persistence to methodically work through a problem and multiple potential solutions to identify the best approach for resolving it. Systems integration engineers may need to switch focus from thinking about long-term design issues to solving an immediate application issue, so the ability to switch between tasks without losing focus is key.
As computer applications and the environments they run in become ever more complex, there's no end to the challenges systems integration engineers need to solve, making this an exciting career for technically oriented thinkers who thrive on variety.
You may think the transition of an application from development to production happens at the end of the software lifecycle, but achieving a successful transition requires thinking about it all the way back at the start of the development process. Here are 10 things you can do during development to make it easier for the operations team to take responsibility for the app in production:
1. Make it easy to gather metrics. A key part of the operations team's job is monitoring what the application is doing and how it's doing it. That's a lot easier when the application gathers basic information and provides hooks for ops to check other performance numbers.
2. Document system dependencies. No system runs in isolation, but if the ops team doesn't know your application depends on some obscure package, that package may end up getting deleted to free up space. Put together a list of all the necessary components to make sure they get installed and stay installed to keep your app running.
3. Degrade gracefully. Don't write an application that falls apart when there's any sort of problem. Applications should flag problems and alert the support team, but continue functioning as fully as possible. This means applications shouldn't fail to come up just because the log file system is full.
4. Keep compatibility in mind. If your application can run with past and future versions of third-party products, the DevOps team will have a much easier time deploying your application and managing it, especially if it runs in a shared environment where other applications may want different versions of those components.
5. Make it easy to change configuration settings. A key responsibility of the DevOps team is keeping applications running when the environment around them is shifting. Building connection strings and other configuration settings into compiled code makes it impossible for DevOps to do that.
6. Provide configurations settings and flags for as much as possible. If a feature isn't configurable or can't be turned off and on, the DevOps team has no way to control it and manage the impact in production.
7. Build with scalability in mind. If you're lucky, your application will be wildly successful and have to grow to support more users. A well-designed application will let DevOps handle this by running the app on more nodes. If you don't design the application well, it may need to go back to the development team for a rewrite before the user base can expand.
8. Think about support scripts. The support team would love to automate as much of their job as possible. This means making sure application functionality can be invoked from a command line, rather than only by clicks within a GUI.
9. Provide a regression test suite. DevOps wants the application to keep running when the environment around it changes. A robust regression test suite lets them verify the system will still work after they make changes.
10. Document. Document. Document. There's a ton of critical information that exists only in the developers' heads. Writing it down means the DevOps team won't need to call developers in the middle of the night to find out where to change a configuration setting.